June 17, 2012
by Graham

Ukraine and other anglicisations

On Saturdays, The Independent newspaper has a column called “Errors and Omissions”, which discusses infelicities in the language used in the paper over the previous seven days.

Yesterday it discussed the use (or not) of the definite article with “Ukraine”. Guy Keleny (writer of the piece) seems to be against omitting the article on the grounds that what Ukrainians do, even when speaking English, is irrelevant – they are not native speakers of English, and their usage, while it should be noted by us, ought not to determine our linguistic behaviour.

There are other country names whose definite article has been lost – Lebanon and Gambia are two that immediately come to mind. In the cases of Ukraine and Lebanon, these are names for places which used to form part of larger countries and have become independent: Ukraine from Russia, and Lebanon from Syria. In the case of Gambia, this is the name of a river, and river names are usually preceded by the definite article – The Thames, The Rhine, The Potomac. Geographical areas are also usually given an article – the Caucasus, the Maghreb. And in English, the Netherlands, though in Dutch the name is simply Nederland, neither ‘articled’ nor plural.

Many island groups also carry the article – the British Isles, the Maldives, the Philippines.

I have some sympathy for Mr Keleny – I used to argue against John Simpson that the adjective formed from Iran was Iranian, pronounced /ɪˈreɪnɪən/, not /ɪˈrɑːnɪən/, regardless of what Iranians themselves say when speaking English,  just as we say /bəˈheɪmɪən/ for the adjective from Bahamas. I also argued that just because the Chinese were now insisting on spelling the name of their capital Beijing, we had no need to change our well-established anglicisation Peking. After all, the French and Spanish call London ‘Londres’, and we have our own spellings for many European cities, and almost all country names. Must we change them as well?

However, time moves on, and we do abandon some of these established anglicisations, as has happened with Saragossa, Flushing, and Leghorn over the past century.

One thing Mr Keleny has got wrong: the Chinese have not changed the name of their capital, simply its spelling in Roman letters. The Indian cities of Mumbai and Chennai, on the other hand, have had not just the spelling, but the names changed to eradicate supposedly colonial connotations.

June 4, 2012
by Graham

Queen’s English Society, RIP

Two years ago, I wrote a post on the Queen’s English Society as it set up an “English Academy”, and I ended my post “Who will prove the futility of the Queen’s English Society’s efforts to its members?”

We now have the answer: its own members. BBC News has just reported that fewer than twenty bothered to turn up to the AGM, and that it has been decided to wind up the Society.

There’s nothing more to be said, I think.

May 9, 2012
by Graham

What is iconic?

It seems that anything can be “iconic”. I’ve collected all of the following in just a few weeks:

The turtle is an iconic species.

The beauty of a traditional radio telescope is iconic.

Al-Qaeda targets iconic buildings.

The Roundhouse, in London, is iconic, as are the ruins of Greyfriars at Dunwich (both obviously to be targeted by Al-Qaeda!)

Terence Conran is Britain’s most iconic designer.

The gull-wing doors of the Mercedes 300 are iconic.

Paul Henreid lighting two cigarettes in “Now Voyager” is an iconic image.

The OED has no earlier quotations than 1976 for what one has to assume is the meaning in all these cases:

“Designating a person or thing regarded as representative of a culture or movement; important or influential in a particular (cultural) context”.

How quickly meanings can spread.

April 24, 2012
by Graham

News Corporation

This Murdoch company is in the news again today with the most recent appearance of James Murdoch before the Leveson Inquiry into phone hacking at the News of the World.

The name of the company is usually abbreviated to “News Corp”, and it’s interesting how many people pronounce this without the final ‘p’ – /’njuːz kɔː/. The pronunciation /kɔː/ is normal for the word corps, as a military unit, but I don’t remember ever having it heard as an abbreviation for corporation except in this context. Some BBC reporters are ‘guilty’ in this respect, but presenters such as Martha Kearney on The World at One are keeping to the longer pronunciation, which is the only one given in both the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation. The latest edition of the EPD that I own doesn’t give the abbreviation at all. I wonder how long it will be before the innovative pronunciation finds its way into the dictionaries.

April 17, 2012
by Graham

Anders Breivik

Following my post on Utøya last July, John Maidment asked me about the pronunciation of Breivik, and I gave an answer here. I’m still hearing the pronunciation with schwa from some broadcasters, including some Radio 4 newsreaders, so maybe that is what the BBC’s Pronunciation Unit is recommending.

I don’t want to get into a long discussion of the case, but BBC News is reporting that Breivik is claiming that he killed 77 people out of ‘self-defence’. This is a mis-translation of the Norwegian term, which is “nødrett”. Einar Haugen’s Norwegian-English Dictionary says “jus necessitatis (= case involving legal act of necessity); ytterste nødrett: ‘justifiable homicide’.”

April 14, 2012
by Graham

Pleonasm or useful linguistic device?

During the 1970s and 1980s, there was frequent adverse comment in the press and to the broadcast media (I was at the end of quite a lot of complaints) about the phrase “at this moment in time”. Complainants generally said things like “what’s wrong with just saying ‘now’, or ‘at the moment’?” I think the answer is that they don’t mean quite the same thing. “At this moment in time” is more immediate than either of the other words/phrases, and emphasises this.

I haven’t heard the phrase for some time, and that is either because it’s now so common that I don’t notice it any more, or else because it’s dropped out of use again. However, a new pleonasm has taken its place: “for ever”. Programme presenters and voice-over artists are increasingly using this phrase in the context “it changed his life for ever” or “this changed history for ever”. The words “for ever” are completely unnecessary here – if someone’s life, or history, is changed, it is highly unlikely that it could be changed back by a new set of circumstances.

So why do we use these unnecessary phrases? I think it is because we need to add emphasis to our statements. To say that “something changed” sounds rather flat. To say it changed “for ever” adds that extra bit to stress the point. It is not a new phenomenon: language is constantly wearing out, and so needs to be re-invigorated by some means, and this is one of them. Eventually the new term can become so ingrained that we don’t realise it was originally a pleonasm. Take the French word “aujourd’hui”, for instance. When we learn French as a foreign language, we accept without question that this means “today”, but if we analyse it, we can break it down into its etymological components, and find that it translates as “on the day of today”, since the Old French word for “today” was “hui”, the French reflex of the Latin word “hodie” – itself a contraction of “hoc die” = “on this day”. “Hui” by itself became such an insignificant little word that in order to draw attention to its meaning, it had to be extended to “aujourd’hui”. The same is what happens in English when we hear “this casual meeting changed his life for ever”.

March 18, 2012
by Graham

Hesitation, deviation, repetition

In a New Year broadcast, the veteran radio critic of the Daily Telegraph, Gillian Reynolds, took the BBC’s “Today” presenters to task for their umming and erring. When they were about to interview someone, she said, they must often have prepared the questions hours in advance. They give a lengthy introduction to the interviewee for the benefit of the listeners, but then, she asked, why did they preface the first question with ‘um’ as if they were unsure what they were going to ask? Yesterday (17 March) the “Today” programme talked to Nicholas Parsons, the chairman of the radio panel game “Just a Minute”, in which the contestants must talk for a minute on any specified subject without hesitation, deviation, or repetition, and asked him for his opinion of the presenters’ fluency. Mr Parsons is very polite, and said he thought they were almost perfect. He was also brought on to today’s “Broadcasting House” programme, where he said much the same thing.

The irony is that immediately after the Parsons discussion on the “Today” programme, where he was talking to John Humphrys and Justin Webb, John Humphrys interviewed two people about something completely different, and having introduced Danielle Pinnington (the owner of Shoppercentric Ltd, a market research company), he said ‘um’ before he asked the first question.

Much as I admire Gillian Reynolds, I don’t think this is hesitation or uncertainty of any sort. I think it can be called a boundary marker: “I’ve done the introduction, now get ready for my first question”, which serves to prepare both the interviewee and the listener for the change in the dialogue.

I shall be interested to see if anyone either agrees or disagrees with me.

February 22, 2012
by Graham

One word, two opposing meanings

The points of the compass provide us with an interesting example of one word having two opposite meanings:

A westerly wind is coming from the west.

A person travelling in a westerly direction is going to the west.

The same is true for all the directions. Admittedly, ‘from the west’ appears to be limited to meteorological contexts (see OED examples) but it still seems to me to be unusual for a word to be so diametrically opposed – to itself.

Are there any other words that exhibit this potentially confusing feature?

February 11, 2012
by Graham

(labio-)dental fricatives

The realisation of /θ/ as /f/ in English (and similarly for its voiced equivalent) has long been thought of as a Cockney trait, made fun of by generations of comedians, and bemoaned by countless traditionalists as heralding the demise of ‘proper’ English. Less well-known is its occurrence in other varieties of English, such as certain Scots dialects, but it has never been recognized as an alternative acceptable pronunciation in standardized British English.

How long can we sustain this? It’s now heard from all sorts of otherwise apparently well-educated people. Is it to be classed as a speech defect? Lucy Worsley, the recently popular presenter of BBC television programmes on interior design (“If Walls Could Talk”), and Chief Curator at Historic Royal Palaces, uses /f/ and /v/ regularly, and yet she is clearly a very well educated woman.

How long before the various pronunciation dictionaries have to start including /friː/ alongside /θriː/, and /ˈfɜːvə/ together with /ˈfɜːðə/. This will create a whole new set of acceptable homophones, including fervour ~ further, free ~ three, and sliver ~ slither, the last of which are already confused by hyper-correcting Londoners who may talk of a ‘slither’ of wood.

January 17, 2012
by Graham

Coerced pronunciation

Jack Windsor Lewis (here) either acclaims me as or accuses me of – according to your point of view – being a champion player of the rant against unusual pronunciations. He also names John Maidment in the same context. I can’t speak for John, of course, but my rants are always aimed at people who are speaking professionally and publicly, and who therefore (in my view) should take care that the style of speech they use, including the pronunciation of individual words, is not going to interfere with the transmission of information. Unusual pronunciations, in my opinion, hinder this by making the listener (and I include television viewers as listeners in this case) concentrate on the form of the communication rather than its content. In a parallel way, professional writers need to use both traditional orthography and accepted ‘standard’ grammar in their published work, unless they specify otherwise – as Jack does for his blog.

This, therefore, is not a rant, but an observation. I was recently at a concert where the artists introduced each item with a short talk about either the composer or the work they were about to play, or both. In introducing a string quartet by Shostakovich, one of the quartet members said that the composer had been /kəʊˈhɜːst/ by the Soviet government into making statements and writing certain pieces of music. This is an unusual pronunciation of the word coerced, and I wondered how it had arisen. She was not a professional speaker, and possibly unused to addressing an audience, so it may not be surprising that she ‘mis-spoke’ (in the manner of some American presidents).

Two possible sources for the mistake come to mind – rehearse, which is a word very familiar to musicians, and cohere. Add to that the thousand-year struggle for the /h/ phoneme to retain its ‘proper’ place in English phonology, and it is quite understandable that confusion should reign, and a nervous speaker opt for the unexpected usage I, and about seventy other people, heard.

On the other hand, if it had been a BBC presenter …